The séadna is a type of Irish verse written in quatrains. The lines have alternating lengths and there are various rules regarding the rhymes and syllable counts of the poem. Techniques common in Gaelic poetry, such as dunadh (a special type of refrain) and cywddydd (harmony of sound), are typically used.
The rionnaird is an ancient Irish verse form consisting of quatrains. The poem form is technically a meter, as the ancient Celtic cultures had a very different concept of meter than we do in modern English. A longer version can be formed by repeating rionnairds back-to-back for as long as the poet would like.
The deachnadh mor is an Irish verse form that uses quatrains with alternating rhyme schemes, exact syllable counts, cross-rhymes, and alliteration. It’s considered an advanced form, even within its native language, and should be approached with caution after mastering more basic forms of poetry first.
Deachnadh cummaisc is an Irish verse form utilizing quatrains with alternating rhyme (ABAB). The syllable counts of the stanzas can either be arranged as 8/4/8/4 or 8/4/4/8, so each verse will have a total of 24 syllables by default. Sound-based techniques like alliteration and cross-rhyme are heavily encouraged.
Cro cumaisc etir casbairdni ocus lethrannaigecht is an Irish verse form based on rhymed quatrains. Despite the intimidating name, it’s a relatively simple form utilizing a syllable structure of 7/5/7/5 with a rhyme scheme of ABAB. Additional restrictions are placed on the length of the last words in each line.
The droighneach is a Gaelic verse form that’s relatively unheard of in English. It consists of quatrains in which each line is 9-13 syllables, with alternating rhyme and a scattering of techniques thrown in that are definitive of Irish poetry. The form’s difficulty has earned it the informal nickname ‘the thorny.’
The ae fraeslighe is an Irish form that utilizes rhymed quatrains with seven-syllable lines. The form was purposely designed to be easy to remember, owing to the heritage of Irish poetry as an oral tradition. An ae fraeslighe can be any number of quatrains, allowing the length to fit a range of topics.