Jintishi, or regulated verse, is a group of Chinese poem forms that rely heavily on tonality and rhyme, traditionally written in couplets. This particular form is so entrenched in tonality that there is no true English equivalent, since the English language has a limited relationship with tone compared to Chinese.
While you might hear that the gogyohka is a short Japanese poem form and mistakenly conflate it with the extremely popular haiku, the two are not related. The gogyohka is a modern invention of the Japanese poet Enta Kusakabe (born 1938) and only has two simple rules. It is five lines long. Each line is one phrase.
Masnavi (or mathnawi) are a poem form that emerged from the middle east, and most likely the Persian empire, sometime between the 4th and 10th century. The form is entirely comprised of couplets, though triplet variants exist, with isosyllabic lines of either ten or eleven syllables and varies from region to region.
Idylls are short poems about rural living, but Theocritus’s original idylls were quite long by the standards of modern poetry. This is generally seen as a synonym for pastoral. When the two are differentiated, it is accepted that “idyll” will then refer to poems directly inspired by Theocritus’ writing.
The waka is a type of Japanese poem form consisting of a 5-7-5-7-7 syllable structure. The poet is generally expected to divide waka into two distinct sections, usually signified in English by a hard stop of some kind, such as a period or semi-colon. This division is between the first three lines and the final couplet.
The toddaid is one of the 24 codified Welsh meters. This particular poem form consists of uneven couplets with lines of ten and nine syllables, featuring unusual rhyme schemes that utilize a technique called gair cyrch, ultimately resulting in staggered rhymes that feel exotic to English readers and writers.
The viator is a refrain-based poem type created by the Canadian poet Robin Skelton. It uses a refrain on the first line that becomes the second line of the second stanza, the third line of the third, and so on. The poem ends on the refrain, such that the number of lines per verse and number of verses per poem is equal.
The Than-Bauk is a Burmese tercet utilizing climbing rhyme. It consists of three tetrasyllabic lines with a single rhyme that starts on the last syllable of the first line, then on the third syllable of the second line, and finally on the second syllable of the last line. Than-Bauks are usually witty or humorous.