Vocabularycleft poems are a type of found poetry proposed by Howard Bergerson in 1969. They’re made by scrambling the words from a preexisting poem into a list and then using them to create a new poem. Functionally, they’re similar in nature to a collage. The form’s main exposure was in issues of Word Ways.
The Waltmarie is a simple poetic form that utilizes ten lines with exactly two syllables on each even-numbered line, but no restrictions on the odd lines. The even-numbered lines are expected to form a separate poem when read alone, effectively hiding a bonus poem in plain sight for those familiar with the form.
The terzanelle is a hybrid of the villanelle and terza rima verse forms, first created by American formalist poet Lewis Turco. While its heavy use of refrains and physical structure chiefly resemble the villanelle, it takes on some of the freedom and identity of the terza rima, including interlocked rhyme sounds.
Sedoka is a Japanese poem form consisting of two tercets that each have a 5-7-7 or sometimes 5-7-5 syllable structure. There’s quite a bit of disagreement among western sources as to what theming the poem is intended to have, but natural imagery and a concept of reflective thinking do seem to appear consistently.
The English roundelay is a stanzaic verse form that uses rhymed sixains and extensively employs refrain, almost to the exclusion of any unrepeated lines. Roundelay can otherwise refer to a short simple song that employs refrains and neither should be confused with the unrelated American “rondelay” poem form.
The rondine is a French verse form from around the 16th century that traces its roots to the rondeau, joining a prestigious family of forms that are united by difficult rhyme schemes and heavy use of refrains. The rondine, for its part, is effectively just a shorter rondeau, at 12 lines instead of the usual 15.
The rondeau redouble is essentially a challenging “super rondeau” that extends the form out to 25 lines instead of 15. That, while also demands a tighter structure focused around rhymed quatrains instead of uneven verses, while still utilizing refrains. It was invented by the 16th-century French poet Clement Marot.
The roundabout is a twenty-line poem comprised of four quintains. The meter of the poem is iambic, though its length changes from line to line. The poem also features refrains unique to each verse, but its most interesting quality is the way the rhyme scheme comes ‘back around’ to the first end sound.
The rondelet, not to be confused with the rondel or short rondel, is a seven-line French poem form that utilizes a refrain three times despite its brevity. As a result, the real challenge of the form is often seeing how much the poet can fit within the limited space left behind between the refrains.
The rispetto is a 15th century Italian verse form based around two rhyming quatrains. It usually has a rhyme scheme of abab ccdd, though the second verse can vary a bit. The most defining feature of the rispetto is that it is always a poem expressing respect. In fact the name, rispetto, literally means “respect.”
The rionnaird is an ancient Irish verse form consisting of quatrains. The poem form is technically a meter, as the ancient Celtic cultures had a very different concept of meter than we do in modern English. A longer version can be formed by repeating rionnairds back-to-back for as long as the poet would like.